Monday, December 30, 2019

Db2 for z/OS and RACF, Part 1: External Db2 Security

In a Db2 for z/OS context, RACF (the IBM security management subsystem for z/OS systems) can serve two important purposes, providing security for a Db2 environment in an external and an internal sense. Db2 external security is about determining which users/processes can connect to a Db2 subsystem, and how. Internal security concerns the Db2-related things that a user/process can do once the user/process has connected to a Db2 subsystem. External security for a Db2 subsystem is almost entirely a RACF matter, whereas internal security can be managed either through Db2 (largely via GRANT and REVOKE statements) or through RACF (via a Db2-supplied exit provided for this purpose). The overall subject is a little too broad for a single blog entry, so I'll tackle it in two parts. This first entry will focus on RACF in a Db2 external security sense. Part two, which I'll post within the next 3-4 weeks, will cover RACF management of Db2-internal security (which, again, is an alternative to Db2 management of Db2-internal security).

[Note: in this blog entry (and the next) I will focus exclusively on RACF, versus alternative z/OS security management products available from other vendors. If you use such an alternative product, you can check with the appropriate vendor to see how the RACF features and functions that I describe herein map to the alternate product's capabilities.]

With regard to RACF-provided Db2 external security, there is first of all a fundamental area of RACF functionality of which most every Db2-using organization makes use. Here, I am referring to the ability RACF provides to create (and authenticate) user profiles - basically, the ability to define and manage authorization IDs in a z/OS system. These are often referred to as "user IDs," but a user ID may or may not be associated with a user who is a person - it may be an ID associated with an application process. When a user or an application process wants to connect to a Db2 for z/OS subsystem, it presents an ID and an associated authentication credential (that credential is typically a password, but it could be a certificate - more on the latter below). When the ID and password are presented, they are usually processed through one of two Db2-supplied exits, called the sample connection exit (named DSN3SATH) and the sample sign-on exit (named DSN3SSGN). These exits are referred to as "sample" because they are provided in source form, and that source code can be modified if desired or required (note that when the sample connection and sign-on exits are used, from an execution perspective they are named DSN3@ATH and DSN3@SGN, respectively). The connection exit is driven when a subsystem/started task (e.g., CICS or IMS) or a user or a process wants to connect to a Db2 subsystem, and the sign-on exit is driven when a process (usually a CICS or an IMS transaction) wants to access Db2 through a subsystem/started task (e.g., CICS or IMS) that is already connected to the Db2 subsystem in question.

[As noted, passwords are typically used to authenticate presented IDs because that is a very easy thing for a security administrator to set up. If, however, there is a desire or a need to use certificates instead of passwords for ID authentication, that support has been there since Db2 10 for z/OS. Information on using certificates for ID authentication in a Db2 context can be found in an IBM "red paper" titled, DB2 for z/OS: Configuring TLS/SSL for Secure Client/Server Communications (that paper can be downloaded from the IBM Web page at]

When the Db2 sample connection or sign-on exit is driven, two main things happen: first, Db2 calls RACF to verify that the presented ID is valid and that the accompanying authentication credential (password or certificate) is in fact the one that is associated with the ID - if that user verification test fails, the connection or sign-on request is rejected. Secondarily, Db2 will request that RACF provide a list of all the group IDs (if any) to which the presented user ID is connected. These RACF group IDs become the list of Db2 secondary authorization IDs with which the primary authorization ID is associated (secondary authorization IDs are very helpful in managing Db2 privileges - when a privilege is granted to a RACF group ID, it is available to all the associated user IDs, saving the trouble of granting the privilege separately to each of those individual user IDs).

OK, that's basic RACF external security for Db2: no valid user ID (or lack of the required password or certificate), no connection to the Db2 subsystem. Suppose, though, that you need connection-permission security to be handled in a more granular fashion. For example, you may have a need for ID SMITH to be able to connect to a Db2 subsystem called DBP1, but only as a DRDA requester, or only as a REST requester, or only by way of TSO. In other words, SMITH can connect to DBP1 this way, but not that way. If such a need exists, RACF can do the job, but a little more set-up is required. For one thing, a RACF general resource class called DSNR has to be active. The DSNR resource class pertains specifically to Db2 connection permissions from a RACF perspective, and activating that resource class enables one to be more granular in the management of Db2-external security.

With the DSNR resource class activated, a security administrator can set up various profiles that enable management of Db2 connection permissions based on particular "come-from" environments. The available profiles of this nature are listed below (and one would substitute for "ssn" the name of the Db2 subsystem for which connection permission is being managed):
  • ssn.MASS for IMS (MASS is a reference to multi-address space security - access to Db2 via IMS typically involves several IMS address spaces) 
  • ssn.SASS for CICS (SASS is a reference to single-address space security)
  • ssn.RRSAF for the Recoverable Resource Services access facility
  • ssn.BATCH for the TSO attachment facility, the call attachment facility (aka CAF) and Db2 utilities
  • ssn.DIST for the DDF address space
  • ssn.REST for access via Db2's REST interface

Once a protected access profile has been defined for a Db2 subsystem, IDs can be permitted (in RACF terminology) to access the named Db2 subsystem by way of the specified access profile. To get a better handle on how all this comes together, consider a situation in which a user with ID SMITH wants to access a Db2 subsystem called DBP1:
  • If the RACF resource class DSNR has not been activated then from a RACF perspective SMITH can access DBP1 via any type of "come-from" environment (e.g., via TSO, a batch job, as a DRDA requester, etc.), though of course SMITH will not be able to get into the z/OS system itself unless RACF has determined that SMITH is a valid ID and that the required password (or certificate) has been provided for or by SMITH.
  • If the RACF resource class DSNR is active and a profile named DBP1.BATCH has been defined, SMITH will not be able to access DBP1 via TSO or a batch job or a Db2 utility unless the ID SMITH has been permitted to use the DBP1.BATCH profile (alternatively, SMITH could access DBP1 via TSO or a batch job or a utility if SMITH is connected to a RACF group ID that has been permitted to use the DBP1.BATCH profile).

A little something extra to note about the ssn.DIST profile: if user SMITH can access DBP1 via a batch job (because SMITH has been RACF-permitted to do so), and SMITH submits a batch job that references a table in Db2 subsystem DBP2, that access to the table in the DBP2 subsystem will require the ID SMITH to be RACF-permitted to use the DBP2.DIST profile on the z/OS system in which DBP2 runs (assuming that the DSNR resource class is active on that z/OS system, and assuming that DBP1's Db2 communications database has been set up so that DBP1 can be a DRDA requester to DBP2). In this case SMITH will not require RACF permission to use the DBP1.DIST profile, even though SMITH is using DBP1's DDF address space to get to the table in the DBP2 subsystem, because the DBP1.DIST profile is checked at connection-request time, and SMITH is already connected to DBP1 by way of a batch job (from a connection-request perspective, it is the DDF address space of DBP2 that is involved here, and that is why SMITH needs RACF permission to use the DBP2.DIST profile).

And yet one more thing about access to a Db2 subsystem via DDF: suppose you want to restrict SMITH's access to DBP1 so that connection is only permitted via DBP1's DDF address space (i.e., not batch, TSO, etc.) and only from certain IP addresses. Getting granular to that degree for connection-permission management requires some additional set-up actions. In particular, the RACF SERVAUTH class will need to be used, in combination with z/OS TCP/IP Network Access Control. Information on doing this can be found on this page in the Db2 for z/OS Knowledge Center on IBM's Web site:

Information on other matters I have covered in this blog entry, such as defining protected access profiles for a Db2 subsystem and permitting IDs to use those profiles, can be found here:

Information on the Db2 connection and sign-on exits can be found here:

I hope that this information will be useful for you. Tune in next month for a look at how RACF can be used to manage Db2-internal security.